Arkansas Science Teachers Association’s Science Safety Guide and Standards for K-12 Schools

Revised October 2009 2

Table of Contents

Preface……………………………………………………………… 3

Purpose of The ASTA Safety Standards…..……………………….. 4

§1.0 Classroom Student Capacity………………………………….. 6

§2.0 Room Size Standards…………………………………………. 7

§3.0 Science Safety………………………………………………… 7

3.1 Science Safety Committee ……………………………… 7

3.2 Occupational Safety and Health Compliance Program …. 7

3.3 Science Safety Standards …………………………..…… 8

3.4 Science Safety Equipment and Standards ……………….. 8

3.4.1 K-6 Equipment and Standards……………..…… 9

3.4.2 Grades 7-12 and Standards…………..…………. 10

§4.0 ADE On-Campus Standards Review ………………………….. 21

§5.0 Field Trips and Extracurricular Activities …………………… 21

§6.0 Science Safety Responsibilities ………………………………. 22

§7.0 Arkansas Total Science Safety System ……………………… 24

§8.0 The Chemical Hygiene Plan ………………………………… 24

8.1Reason for the CHP ……………………………………. 24

8.2 Basic components of a CHP …………………………… 25

8.3 The sections of a CHP …………………………………. 25

§9.0 References………………………………………………………. 27

§10.0 Appendices

10.1 Appendix 1: EPA P List of Chemicals (Acutely Hazardous Chemicals)…………………………………………………………… 29

10.2 Appendix 2: Explosive Reagents …………………………………… 36

10.3 Appendix 3: EPA Toxic Chemicals List …………………………… 38

10.4 Appendix 4: EPA’s List of Persistent, Bioaccumulative, Toxic Chemicals and Pollution Prevention ………………………………. 42 3

Preface

This guide is the property of Arkansas Science Teachers Association (ASTA). It was developed solely by ASTA to help provide a safer environment for K-12 teachers and their students. It can be used as a stand alone safety document or combined with the ASTA Total Science Safety System CD or the Council of State Science Supervisors two science safety guides. The document has not been reviewed or approved by the Arkansas Department of Education or any other state or federal agency. However, it does contain information on required state and national science safety standards. Please refer all questions to the President of ASTA. The web site of the ASTA is http://www.arkscience.org.

The ASTA strongly recommend that all schools have a copy of the Total Science Safety System, Arkansas Edition CD developed by Drs. Jack Gerlovich and Dennis McElroy from JaKel, Inc. in Waukee, Iowa. This CD was produced for Arkansas schools and cites Arkansas laws and regulations.

Quoting Dr. Gerlovich, “I think this (CD) would be best for everyone from a cost standpoint AND content depth and quality. Recall that the CD includes all of the following:

– all applicable federal and state laws and codes

– all applicable professional standards

– 2 chemical database and labeling systems

– safety audits of all science settings

– student safety contracts

– 7 safety videos

– hundreds of weblinks

– much more

All information is word keyword searchable and interactive and all forms are in common MS-Word, or Excel, format for ease of use.”

If your school does not have a copy of this CD, contact Steve Zimmer (szimmer@atu.edu) for information how you can get a copy or visit JaKel, Inc. on the web at http://showcase.netins.net/web/jakel/ to order a copy.

The following ASTA Science Safety Committee members that have donated many hours of their time to this revision are:

Ms. Linda Shott, Science Teacher at Pottsville Junior High School

Ms. Avil Snow, Science Teacher at Heber Springs High School.

Ms Lynne Hehr, Director of the Center for Math and Science Education, University of Arkansas.

Mr. Steve Long, Science Teacher at Rogers High School

Dr. Jacqueline Bowman, Associate Professor of Biology, Arkansas Tech University

Mr. Steve Zimmer, Director of the Math & Science Institute, Arkansas Tech University.

4

Purpose of the Arkansas Science Teacher Association (ASTA) Safety Standards

The Arkansas Science Curriculum Frameworks (2005) specify that all science courses or units, kindergarten through high school should spend twenty percent or more of instructional time on hands-on laboratory experiences.

Arkansas Standards for Accreditation section 9.03.4.2 states for grades 9-12, “Active student participation in laboratory experience is required for a minimum of 20% of instructional time”.

Laboratory activities are defined as those activities in which the students are taking an active part in hands-on, data-collecting experiences through which results can be achieved, analyzed, evaluated and reported upon. These activities may take place in a classroom, laboratory or outdoor setting. The key to defining an activity as a laboratory activity is whether or not are all students actively involved the manipulations required to complete the activity. At times it is appropriate to use computer simulations; however, computer simulations are not to be thought of as a replacement of regular hands-on activities.

The ASTA is a state chapter of the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA). ASTA supports and recognizes the recommendations and positions of NSTA. The position of the NSTA strongly supports laboratory activities. As stated in their position statement “The Integral Role of Laboratory Investigations in Science Instruction (2007),

“… For science to be taught properly and effectively, labs must be an integral part of the science curriculum. The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) recommends that all preK–16 teachers of science provide instruction with a priority on making observations and gathering evidence, much of which students experience in the lab or the field…. For science to be taught properly and effectively, labs must be an integral part of the science curriculum (emphasis added). The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) recommends that all preK–16 teachers of science provide instruction with a priority on making observations and gathering evidence, much of which students experience in the lab or the field.

Also, the NSTA states also in the same position paper,

“…While reading about science, using computer simulations, and observing teacher demonstrations may be valuable, they are not a substitute for laboratory investigations by students….”

The American Chemical Society (ACS) supports the use of computers and web-based tools for appropriate purposes such as simulations, experimental investigations, and drills, but generally not as a complete replacement for laboratory experiences (ACS Policy Statement on Science Education accessed 2/2/2009 at http://portal.acs.org/portal/acs/corg/content?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=PP_SUPERARTICLE&node_id=1892&use_sec=false&sec_url_var=region1&__uuid=d0f395e3-734b-4b65-9d83-1efb22f24baa). 5

The guide is intended to help schools meet the state and federal safety standards (Arkansas Occupational Safety and Health regulations (AOSH), Arkansas Chemical Right to Know (Ark. Code Ann. 8-7-1001 through -1016 and 11-2-110, -112 and -113, 1987, Council of State Science Supervisors’ Safety Guides Standards (CSSS), and American National Standards Institute (ANSI Z87 or Z87.1 approved)) and others. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA 29 CRF 1910.1030) is cited as reference to AOSH. Teachers are covered under AOSH but not under OSHA. The federal OSHA regulations are applicable to the private sector (private schools). Public school employees are covered by the regulations of the Arkansas Department of Labor (Arkansas Safety Code #12 §3-12(ii)).

§ 1.0 Classroom Student Capacity

In addition, ASTA endorses a national standard of no more than 24 students in any science classroom with the following position statement. The Nation Science Teachers Association has set a standard of no more than twenty-four K-12 students in a science classroom for safety reasons. The National Association of Biology Teachers and American Chemical Society also have set a standard of no more than 24 students in the science classroom.

This national standard is different from our state standards at the higher grades. The Arkansas Standards for Accreditation state:

“Kindergarten shall have no more than twenty (20) students to one (1) teacher in a classroom. However, kindergarten class size maximum may be no more than twenty-two (22) with a one half time instructional aide being employed for those classes.

The average student/teacher ratio for grades one through three in a school district shall be no more than twenty-three (23) students per teacher in a classroom. There shall be no more than twenty-five (25) students per teacher in any classroom.”

“The average student/teacher ratio for grades four through six in a school district shall be no more than twenty-five (25) students per teacher in a classroom. There shall be no more than twenty-eight (28) students per teacher in any classroom.”

“In grades seven through twelve, a teacher shall not be assigned more than one hundred fifty (150) students daily; and an individual academic class shall not exceed thirty (30) students, provided that, in exceptional cases or for courses that lend themselves to large group instruction, these ratios may be increased.”

(From “Standards for Accreditation, Arkansas Public Schools Revised January 2005, Standard 10.02).

Studies have shown that fewer accidents take place within classrooms with twenty-four or fewer than classrooms with thirty or more (Gerlovich, 2006).

ASTA recommends that the national standard as cited by the learned scientific societies be followed at all grade levels in Arkansas.

The following room size standards are in line with the Arkansas School Facility Manual http://www.arkansasfacilities.com/SchoolFacManual.aspx 6

§2.0 Science Room Size Standards

Grade Level

Science Classroom With No Lab

Science Laboratory Rooms

Classroom & Laboratory Together

Kindergarten

No more than 22 in the classroom

36 sq. ft/student x 22 students = 790 to 1000 sq. ft.

No more than 22 in the classroom

36 sq. ft/student x 22 students = 790 to 1000 sq. ft.

No more than 22 in the classroom

45 sq. ft/student x 22 students = 1000 to 2000 sq. ft.

Elementary

No more than 24 in the classroom

36 sq. ft/student x 24 students = 860 to 1000 sq. ft.

No more than 24 in the classroom

40 sq. ft/student x 24 students = 960 to 1000 sq. ft.

No more than 24 in the classroom

45 sq. ft/student x 24 students = 1080 to 2000 sq. ft.

Middle

No more than 24 in the classroom

38 sq. ft/student x 24 students = 915 to 1000 sq. ft.

No more than 24 in the classroom

45 sq. ft/student x 24 students = 1080 to 1100 sq. ft.

No more than 24 in the classroom

60 sq. ft/student x 24 students = 1440 to 1500 sq. ft.

High School

No more than 24 in the classroom

38 sq. ft/student x 24 students = 915 to 1000 sq. ft.

No more than 24 in the classroom

50 sq. ft/student x 24 students = 1200 to 1300 sq. ft.

No more than 24 in the classroom

60 sq. ft/student x 24 students = 1440 to 1500 sq. ft.